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FUN-SPANISH-NOUNS

General Introduction

Nouns or Los sustantivos are naming words for people, things, places, ideas, etc

Features of fun spanish nouns:

1 They have a gender; masuline or feminine

2 The gender affects the article, adjectives or pronoun which go with it

3 They are singular or plural

4 There are some general rules linking gender to specific word endings, and these are listed below:-

Masculine list

ENDINGS EXAMPLES
-o el año - year
-ambre el alambre - wire
-aje el equipaje - luggage
- or el amor - love
-an el desván - attic
-ama el crucigrama - crossword
-oma el aroma - aroma, fragrance
-ía el día - day
-ema el problema - problem
-ma el clima - weather
 
GROUPS EXAMPLES
males generally el hombre, el profesor, el camarero
days of the week el lunes, martes, miercoles, etc
months el enero, febrero
rivers el Duero
seas el Mediterráneo
mountains los Pyrenees
fruit trees el naranjo - orange tree
colours el azul
compound nouns el abrelatas - can opener
infinitives used as nouns el comer - eating
languages el español

 

Feminine list

ENDINGS EXAMPLES
--a la casa
  Note the exceptions: -oma, -ama, -ía, -ema, -ma
-cción la lección - lesson
-sión la expressión
-dad la ciudad
-tad la libertad
-tud la virtud - virtue
-sis la crisis
-ie la especie - species
-eza la tristeza - sadness
-itis la sinusitis - sinusitis
-umbre la costumbre - custom, tradition
-o la foto (fotografía) - photo(graph)

 

Other rules

1 Professions, people and some animals ending in -ón or -or are masculine but adding -a create the feminine eg el león / la leona - lion / lioness

2 Some spanish nouns of people and professions ending in -a, -e, -ista, -ante may be masculine or feminine eg el / la turista - tourist

3 Some nouns are spelled the same for male and female eg el / la modila - model; el / la juez - judger

4 Some nouns are similar in female / male form but have a slightly different ending eg el niño / la niña - boy / girl

5 Feminine spanish nouns beginning with a- or ha- take a masculine definite article, but only for pronunciation eg el agua - water

6 Some nouns may designate male or female individuals but they do not change article or spelling eg la víctime - victim; el ser - being

7 Some nouns are spelled the same but change their meaning with article eg el cura / la cura - priest / cure; el capital / la capital - money / city

 

Plurals

The definite articles, los and las, indicate that the noun is a masculine or feminine plural. Plurals are formed by adding -s or -es.

1 Add -s when the noun ends in a vowel eg

el chico / los chicos boy / boys
la hija / las hijas daughter / daughters
el pollo / los pollos chicken / chickens
la casa / las casas house / houses
el banco / los bancos bank / banks
la oficina / las oficinas office / offices

2 Add -es when the noun ends in a consonant

la ciudad / las ciudades city / cities
el hotel / los hoteles hotel / hotels
el profesor / los profesores teacher / teachers

3 There are some spanish nouns which always take the plural form eg

los gemelos - twins las afueras - the suburbs
las vacaciones - vacation los lentes - lenses

4 If the noun already ends in -s, then the plural is the same as the singular eg

el paragua / los paraguas umbrella / umbrellas
el viernes / los viernes friday / fridays

5 If the plural noun refers to a part of the body or item of clothing, it takes the singular form eg

We wash our faces Nos lavamos la cara

6 If the singular ends in the consonant z, change the z to c and add -s

la vez / las veces time, instance / times, instances
la luz / las luces light / lights
el pez / los peces fish / fishes

7 If the singular word has an accent on the final vowel of a word that ends in a consonant, then drop the accent and add -es

la televisión / las televisiones television / televisions
el camión / los camiones truck / trucks
el japonés / los japoneses japanese person / japanese people

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